OFA指導手冊~如何使用健康資料庫與實行選擇性繁殖 <髖關節發育不全(4)> 


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OFA指導手冊~如何使用健康資料庫與實行選擇性繁殖 <髖關節發育不全(4)>

文章泡泡拔 » 2007-01-22, 23:29

犬髖關節狗友會(www.dogchd.net)泡泡拔 阮振維譯自www.offa.org

Radiographic assessment of the hip joint 髖關節的X光顯影評估

Modern breeds vary widely in body size, shape and pelvic conformation.
Because of these differences, OFA classifications are based on
comparisons among individuals of the same breed and age. Knowledge
of hip phenotype can be valuable for the breeder in selection against hip
dysplasia and in estimating the potential for an active working life. It
is assumed that radiographs submitted to OFA are generally screened
by the veterinarian and the more obvious cases of HD are probably
not submitted. Therefore, the actual frequency of HD in the general
population is not known, but has been approximated by Corley (1997)
and Rettenmaier (2002) to be higher than reported by OFA. However,
the main objective of the OFA is to identify phenotypically normal
animals as potential breeding candidates. Thus, the OFA reported breed
frequency of HD can be used as a benchmark for breeders to gauge their
breeding program’s relative position.

Historically, the diagnosis of HD has been determined by radiographic
examination of the hips according to the protocol established
by the American Veterinary Medical Association. In this standard hip
extended position (ventrodorsal view), the animal is placed on its back
with the pelvis symmetrical, both femurs extended and parallel, and
with the stifles (knees) rotated internally placing the patellas (knee caps)
on the midline. The radiograph should include the last two lumbar vertebra
and the stifl e joints. It is essential, particularly in marginal cases,
to obtain proper position and radiographic technique.

The radiographic criteria of subluxation, shallow acetabula, remodeling,
and/or secondary degenerative joint disease are well documented.
However, interpretation and application of these criteria differ between
breeds, age of evaluation and veterinarians.

Figure 1 provides the nomenclature of the hip structures that are evaluated
by the veterinary radiologist. The veterinary radiologist is concerned with
deviations in these structures from the breed normal, and with evidence of
subluxation and degenerative joint disease (also called arthritis, osteoarthritis,
or osteoarthrosis).

Multiple anatomic areas of the hip are evaluated (Fig. 1) including:

1. Craniolateral acetabular margin—Area where abnormal bone
spurs (osteophytes) develop as the dysplastic joint attempts to stabilize
the biomechanically unstable femoral head.

2. Cranial acetabular margin—Area visualized in conjunction with
the hip ball to assess the degree of congruity and confluence of the
hip joint.

3. Femoral head (hip ball) —Assessed to determine its fit into the
socket and degree of congruity with the cranial acetabular margin
forming the joint space.

4. Fovea capitus—Normal flattened area on ball for attachment of the
round ligament; can be mistaken for degenerative changes if there
is lack of familiarity or inexperience in interpretation of hip radiographs.

5. Acetabular notch—Area visualized to help assess depth of socket
or “degree of fit”.

6. Caudal acetabular rim—Area where bone spurs can form.

7. Dorsal acetabular margin—Area visualized to assess the depth of the
hip socket (acetabulum) and percent coverage of the femoral head.

8. Junction of femoral head and neck—Area visualized to assess Area visualized
to assess neck size, shape, and architecture of the femoral head/neck. The neck
of the hip ball is usually the earliest and most commonly affected area where
degenerative changes occur in a dysplastic joint. In the
dysplastic joint, new bone builds up at the site of attachment of the
joint capsule and muscular attachments. This is a result of abnormal
stress created by incongruent articulation of the ball with the
acetabulum during movement.

9. Trochanteric fossa—Area to assess for any microtrabecular bone
changes or new bone proliferation.

Radiographic assessment of the hip joint 髖關節的X光顯影評估


發生率是多少,並沒有辦法確實的被知道。不過Corley (1997)與Rettenmaier (2002)曾經做過約


關節延展狀態下(VD view:腹背視角),動物必須背朝下躺著,骨盆保持對稱,兩條腿的股骨必須平行




1. Craniolateral acetabular margin(髖臼邊緣側蓋骨) — 當發育不全的髖關節,試圖要在生物力學機制上去穩定不穩定的股骨頭時,

2. Cranial acetabular margin(髖臼邊緣蓋骨) – 可以看見髖臼與股骨頭會在此處產生連結,針對此處進行評估可以得知髖關節的一致

3. Femoral head(股骨頭or髖關節球) – 評估此處以確認球狀部位與窩狀部位是否適當地吻合,確認股骨頭與髖臼邊緣蓋骨之間的一致性

4. Fovea capitus(股骨頭小窩) – 位於股骨頭球狀部位的正常平坦區域,是提供給圓形韌帶產生連結的地方;如果對於X光片的診斷解釋

5. Acetabular notch(髖臼凹口) – 顯影在X光上可幫助評髖臼的深度或“吻合程度”。

6. Caudal acetabular rim(髖臼尾緣) – 可能在此處生成骨刺。

7. Dorsal acetabular margin(髖臼背緣) – 可幫助評估髖臼的深度與股骨頭的包覆百分比。

8. Junction of femoral head and neck(股骨頭與股骨頸連接處) – 此處的顯影可幫助評估股骨頸的大小、形狀與股骨頸/頭的構造。


9. Trochanteric fossa(轉節窩) – 評估此處是否有任何微樑骨的變化或新骨增生。
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