OFA指導手冊~如何使用健康資料庫與實行選擇性繁殖 <髖關節發育不全(3)> 

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OFA指導手冊~如何使用健康資料庫與實行選擇性繁殖 <髖關節發育不全(3)>

文章泡泡拔 » 2007-01-05, 11:12

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犬髖關節狗友會(www.dogchd.net)泡泡拔 阮振維譯自www.offa.org


Clinical finding of dysplasia 髖關節發育不全的臨床發現


While most animals with HD do not exhibit clinical signs, those that do
are usually first affected between three and 15 months of age. In some,
the signs may not be observed until later in life. The signs vary from
decreased exercise tolerance to severe crippling. They include: a reluctance
or inability to go up or down stairs, diffi culty in rising from a sitting or prone
position, bunny-hopping gait when running, stiffness early in the morning
that improves as the animal warms up, changes in disposition
due to pain, lameness after exercise, a wobbly gait, a clicking sound
when walking, and many others. Many animals will shift their center of
gravity forward in an effort to relieve weight and pressure on the hips,
thereby developing disproportionately greater muscle mass in the front
limbs as compared to the rear limbs.

The hip joint is a weakened structure in dysplastic animals and is
more prone to injury from normal activities such as jumping off a couch
or rough housing with a playmate. Frequently, this results in an acute
lameness that appears as if it might have been caused by injury, whereas
the underlying dysplasia actually made the joint more susceptible to injury.
Obviously, the normal hip can be injured, but radiographic examination
can usually distinguish between a hip problem due to dysplasia
and one due to other causes.
HD cannot be diagnosed by observing how the animal moves, acts,
lies down, etc. Clinical signs may have other causes, and therefore a
complete orthopedic and radiographic examination is required before
arriving at the conclusion that the signs are caused by HD.


當大部分患有HD的動物都還沒表現出臨床徵狀的時候,那些出現HD徵狀的動物,
通常會在年齡3~15個月之間開始受到影響。在某些例子中,這些徵狀也許都不會
被觀察出來,直到動物的中晚年之後。

這些徵狀的差異很大,小從對運動的容忍度降低,大到嚴重的關節損傷。

可能出現的具體徵狀有:不願意或不能夠上下樓梯,很難從坐或趴的姿勢站起來,
在跑步時呈現兔跳的姿勢,在早晨會出現身體僵硬的情形,必須藉由暖身來改善,
因疼痛而出現性格改變,運動後會有跛腳情形,不穩的步伐,走路時出現喀啦聲響
……等更多其它的徵狀。許多患病的動物會將他們的重心往前移,以減輕髖關節的
承重與壓力,因此前肢的肌肉會不成比例的比後腳壯很多。

患有發育不全的動物,他們的髖關節是一個被弱化的結構,也因此這種脆弱的結構
很容易在正常的活動中受到傷害,像是跳上沙發或是玩伴造成的不良居家管理。這
些因素常常會導致急性的跛腳,看起來就像是曾經受過傷所引起的,因為潛藏的發
育不全疾病,使得髖關節有更高的可能受到急性的傷害。

顯而易見的,正常的關節還是有可能會受傷,但是X光檢查通常可以清楚的分辨,
髖關節所發生的問題是因為CHD或是其它的原因。


髖關節發育不全,是無法藉由觀察動物的走動、活動、躺下……等動作就診斷出來的
。臨床的病徵也許是起因於HD之外的其它因素,所以一個完整的骨科檢查和X光檢驗
是絕對必須的,在這些完整的檢查之前,是沒有辦法做出結論,說動物的病徵是起因
於髖關節發育不全
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泡泡拔
 
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