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OFA指導手冊~如何使用健康資料庫與實行選擇性繁殖 <髖關節發育不全(1)> 

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OFA指導手冊~如何使用健康資料庫與實行選擇性繁殖 <髖關節發育不全(1)>

文章泡泡拔 » 2006-09-07, 11:23

轉載本系列文章請請註明出處:
犬髖關節狗友會(www.dogchd.net)泡泡拔 阮振維譯自www.offa.org

前言

Hip dysplasia (HD), literally defined as an abnormal development
of the hip joint, was first reported in the dog in 1935 by Dr. G.B.
Schnelle. Little to no further information was added to his report
over the following decade, due primarily to limited availability of radiographic
equipment and radiographic expertise within the veterinary
profession.

Popularity of the working dog, particularly the German Shepherd
Dog, increased greatly in the late 1940s and the importance of HD
became evident to breeders, dog owners, and the veterinary profession.
Unrelated, but concurrently, veterinary education underwent an explosion
in numbers of veterinary colleges and in quality of education.
Rapid advances in the veterinary profession made it difficult for
most general practicing veterinarians to remain current with expanding
knowledge in animal diseases. To provide the best possible diagnosis
and patient care, multiple specialty colleges were formed, including the
discipline of radiology which became a recognized specialty in 1966
through the American College of Veterinary Radiology (ACVR).

Hip dysplasia has been reported in man and in most domestic species
of animals. In some breeds of dogs and cats, it is the most common
cause of osteoarthritis (degenerative joint disease). In recent years, interest
in canine HD research has been at an all-time high, as evidenced by
the number of conferences focusing on the subject and by the number
of new publications in scientific journals and popular magazines.

We now know that HD is a more complex disease than what was
first thought. The complexity of the problem is expected to, and has
produced, research findings that appear to be contradictory. These
research reports, and anecdotal writings that continually appear in
the popular press, contribute to confusion and frustration in breeders
and veterinarians not familiar with the scientific literature. Thus, few
diseases in animals have resulted in such extreme emotional reactions,
controversy, or monetary expense as HD.

While it is useful to summarize results from the scientific literature,
in the final analysis more research is needed to find answers to the many
unresolved questions about HD.

Hip dysplasia is currently accepted to be an inherited disease
caused by the interaction of many genes (polygenic). In animals
that are genetically predisposed, there are unknown complex
interactions of genes with the environment that bring about the
degree of phenotypic expression (mild, moderate, or severely hip
dysplasia) of these genes within an individual.

At this time, selectively breeding for normal hips is the only
means to reduce the genetic frequency of HD.

Radiography is currently the accepted means for evaluating the
hip status and it is well documented that the frequency of HD can
be significantly reduced using the standard hip extended view.

It is expected that future research studies will refine these currently
accepted tenets. For example, advances in molecular genetics may
bring about DNA tests to replace radiography as the primary diagnostic
tool, or environmental factors such as medical or nutritional
treatments may be identified that will overcome the genetic expression
of HD in an individual animal.

There are many debates surrounding the myriad of possible factors
that may influence or initiate one or more aspect of HD. While interesting
to consider, the breeder and veterinarian can most successfully pursue
their mutual goals by maintaining their focus on current knowledge
without becoming mired in the debate. The responsible breeder attempts
to produce the best possible representatives of the breed. The veterinarian
assists the breeder in accomplishing this objective by encouraging
breeder education, maintaining the general health of the dog and cat,
and providing the best possible treatment when appropriate.




髖關節發育不全(HD),顧名思義就是髖部關節在發育上出現異常,第一個病例報告
是由施耐爾醫生(Dr. G.B. Schnelle)在1935年所提出。但在接下來的十年,他的報
告幾乎沒有再增加更進一步的資訊,因為受限於放射線顯影設備與獸醫X光鑑定專業
的不足。

在1940年代晚期,工作犬種引起了廣泛的流行,尤其是德國牧羊犬。也因此繁殖者
、飼主與獸醫專家,都明白地意識到髖關節發育不全的重要性。在同時,還有一件
看似無關卻相當重要的事情,那就是獸醫學院的數量與專業教育的品質,都有了爆炸
性的增加。不過也因為獸醫專業快速的進步,對於大部分開業的一般獸醫,要跟上動
物疾病知識擴張的速度,是很困難的。所以為了提供最好的診斷與病患照護,許多專
業學院隨之成立,其中包括了放射線醫學,這一門技術在美國獸醫放射醫學學院(ACVR)
的努力下,在1966年被認證為一門專業。

髖關節發育不全曾經在人類與大部分的家庭豢養動物中被報告出來。在某些品種的犬貓
中,HD引起退化性關節炎是很常見的。近年來,大家對於CHD研究的關注到達了顛峰
,這一點可以由 HD 研討會舉辦的數目,和科學期刊、熱門雜誌中新發表的論文的數目
來得到證實。

我們現在知道髖關節發育不全這個疾病,比我們一開始想像的還要更複雜。這個問題的
複雜程度是在預料之中的,而且也產生了一些看似矛盾的研究發現,這些研究報告和非
正式的文章,一再地出現在熱門的報刊中,進而混淆了對科學論文不熟悉的繁殖者與獸
醫。因此,少數幾個動物疾病,就和髖關節發育不全一樣,造成了如此極端的情緒反應
、爭論或金錢上的耗費。

把科學論文的結果作一個統整是很有用的,所以我們必須去分析更多更多的研究,以期
望能夠回答在CHD中許多還無法被解決的問題。

髖關節發育不全近來被認同是一種遺傳疾病,起因於多個基因之間的交互作用(多基因遺傳)。
在動物中,HD是先天遺傳體質不佳所造成的問題,而多個基因與環境之間存在著未知的交
互作用,影響了這些基因的表現型在個體中被呈現出來的程度 (輕度、中度、重度發育不全)。

所以在這個階段,針對正常髖關節做繁殖篩選,將是降低 HD 發生率的不二法門。

放射線顯影是近來被接受,可以用來評估髖關節狀態的方式,而且這樣的檢查很容易取得。
利用標準的髖關節延展視角作檢查,將可以顯著的降低 HD 的發生率。


可以預見的,未來的研究將可以把目前我們所認同的理論原則去蕪存菁。例如,分子遺傳學
的進步,也許可以讓我們利用DNA檢測來取代放射線顯影,做為第一線的診斷工具。又或許
我們可以釐清環境因子的影響程度,像是醫藥與營養的攝取,進而瞭解這些環境因子對個體
遺傳表現的影響為何。

到目前為止,無數的可能因子仍然被不停歇的爭論層層圍繞,這些因子也許會影響或起始HD
的一個或多個面相。當有興趣想要去考慮這些因子時,繁殖者與獸醫可以藉由維持對最新知
識的關注,來達到共同的目標,也可以避免陷入爭論的泥沼。負責任的繁殖者會試圖去繁殖
出特定品種中,最好、最具代表性的動物,獸醫師則應該鼓勵繁殖者接受繁殖教育,以協助
他們完成這個目標,同時也給予犬、貓基本的健康條件,並在適當的時機盡可能給牠們最好
的治療。
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註冊時間: 2006-02-04, 18:01
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